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 Casharka 5-aad: Qaybaha Motherboard-ka 1

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PostSubject: Casharka 5-aad: Qaybaha Motherboard-ka 1   Thu Feb 10, 2011 3:15 am


Qeybaha Motherboard-ka



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Motherboard uu noociisu yahay ATX.


Motherboard-ku wuxuu ka kooban yahay dhowr qeybood oo
mid walbaa hawl gooni ah qabato. Qaybaha ugu muhiimsan ee ay Motherboard-yada
casriga ah ee maanta la isticmaalaa ka kooban yihiin waxaa ka mid ah:


  1. Processor Socket ama Slot (sawirka
    nr 4)


  2. Chipset (sawirka nr 1)

  3. BIOS (sawirka nr 10)

  4. Battery (sawirka nr 9)

  5. Memory SIMM/DIM sockets (sawirka
    nr Cool


  6. Bus Slots (sawirka nr 2 iyo
    3)


  7. Processor Voltage Regulator

  8. Storage Device Interfaces (Swirka
    nr 11)


  9. Serial Ports (Sawirka
    nr 6)

  10. Parallel Ports (Sawirka nr 5)

  11. Mouse and Keyboard connectors (Sawirka
    nr 7)


Qaybahaas ayaana casharkaan iyo qaar ka mid ah casharradeena
danbaba mid mid ugu soo qaadanaynaa.



  1. Processor Socket ama Slot

Processor Socket ama Slot waa meesha processor-ka looga xiriiriyo
Motherboard-ka. Processor-ka Pentium Pro iyo wixii ka horreeyey waxay isticmaalaan
Sockets. Pentium II iyo wixii ka dambeeyeyna waxay isticmaalaan Slot. Noocyada
processor-rada waxaan uga hadali doonnaa casharradeenna dambe. Socket wuxuu
qaab ahaan u samaysan yahay sida bareesada darbiga ee ay raadiyayaasha,
TV-yada, video-yada iwm ay korontada ka qaataan. Laakiin halka ay bareesadaasi
ka leedahay laba duleel, Socket-ku wuxuu leeyahay 169 ilaa 387 duleel oo
aad u yar yar. Processor-ka loogu tala galay inuu galo Socket gaar ah waa
inuu yeeshaa ilko tiro ahaan le'eg duleellada Socket-kaas islamarkaasna
u safan sida ay duleellada Socket-ku u safan yihiin. Haddii kale isma galayaan.


Processor-radii ka horreeyey 486 way adkayd in la isku
beddelo. Taasina waxay keenaysay in haddii aad u baahato processor ka dheereeya
midka aad markaas haysato aad Motherboard cusub soo gadato. Hase yeeshee
laga soo billaabo processor-ka 486 iyo wixii ka dambeeyay shirkadda Intel
waxay processor-ka ka dhigtay qayb Motherboard-ka lagu xiriiriyo oo markii
la doono la beddeli karo. Si ay arrintaasi u suurtowdo waxay soo saartay
nidaam keenay in hal Socket uu qaato processor-ro uu model-koodu kala duwan
yahay laakiin asal ahaan isku nooc ah.


Socket-yadu waxay leeyihiin nambar taxane ah oo loogu
tala galay in lagu garto nooca processor-rada uu socket kastaa qaadan karo.
Nambarkaas taxanaha ahi wuxuu ka billawdaa Socket 1 ilaa Socket 8. Taxanaha
Socket-yadaasi wuxuu joogsaday markii uu soo baxay Pentium II oo qaab ahaan
aad uga duwan processor-radii ka horreeyay waxaana markaa billawday Slots
oo iyaguna ka billawday Slot1. Shaxanka hoose waxaad ka arki kartaa Socket
ama Slot kasta iyo nooca processor-rada uu qaato.

Socket nr
Tirada duleellada
Nooca processor-rada uu
qaato

Socket
1
169
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4
Overdrive
Socket
2
238
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4
Overdrive, 486 Pentium Overdrive
Socket
3
237
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4
Overdrive, 5x86
Socket
4
273
Pentium 60/66, Overdrive
Socket
5
320
Pentium 75 - 133, Overdrive
Socket
6
235
486 DX, 486 Pentium Overdrive
Socket
7
321
Pentuim 75 - 266, MMX,
Overdrive, 6x86, K6
Socket
8
387
Pentium Pro
Slot
1
242
Pentuim II MMX, Pentium
II Celeron
Slot
2
-
Pentium II Xeon


  1. Chipset

Motherboard-yadii ugu horreeyay ee loogu tala galay PC ee
ay IBM soo saartay waxay lahaayeen qeybo yar yar oo fara badan oo loo yaqaanay
Chips oo loogu talagalay in ay qabtaan hawlo kala duwan. Chips-yada oo
dhan (marka laga reebo CMOS/Clock chip oo ay samayn jirtay shirkadda Motortola)
waxaa samayn jirtay Shirkadda Intel ama shirkad fasax ka haysata Intel.
Chips-yada Motherboard-kaas oo kor u dhaafayay 100 waxay kor u qaadeen
qiimaha Motherboard-ka waxayna keeneen in boosaska ka bannaan Motherboard-ku
ay aad u yaraadaan.


Sanadkii 1986-kii ayaa shirkad la oran jiray Chips and
Technologies waxay soo saartay Chip wax weyn ka beddelay taariikhda Motherboard-yada
oo loo bixiyey 82C206. Chip-kaasi wuxuu beddelay oo uu hal meel isugu keenay
dhammaan hawlihii ay qaban jireen Chips-yadii ugu muhiimsanaa Motherboard-ka
IBM iyo kuwii la midka ahaa. Marka laga reebo Processor-ka waxaa soo haray
afar chip oo kaliya. Taasi waxay keentay in Motherboard-ka oo dhan uu ka
koobnaado 5 chip oo kaliya. Halkaas waxaa ka dhashay waxa loo yaqaan Chipset
oo micnaheedu yahay koox chips-yo ah oo hal meel la isugu geeyay. Muddo
ka dibna waxaa dhacday in xataa afartii chip ee soo hartay ay meesha ka
baxaan kadib markii uu soo baxay Chipset loo bixiyey 82C836 Single Chip
AT (SCAT) kaas oo hal meel isugu geeyey dhammaan Chips-yadii uu Motherboard-ku
ka koobnaa. Taasi waxay aad u fududaysay samaynta Motherboard-ka islamarkaana
waxay aad u yaraysay kharashka ku baxa samayntiisa taasoo hoos u dhigtay
qiimihiisa. Waxa kale oo ay keentay in ay boosas fara badan u bannaanaadaan
kaararka iyo qeybaha kale ee Motherboard-ka lagu sii kordhiyo.


Fikradda Chipset-ku aad ayay suuqa ugu faaftay waxaana
soo baxay shirkado fara badan oo shaqo ka dhigtay samaynta Chipset-ka Motherboard-ka.
Laakiin laga soo billaabo 1993-kii waxaa suuqa Chipset-ka soo galay shirkadda
Intel oo ah shirkadda samaysa processor-rada ugu caansan suuqa ee ay ka
mid yihiin Pentium, Pentium II iyo Pentium III. Muddo sanad guhiis ah ayay
Intel suuqa Chipset-ka ku qabsatay dhammaan shirkadihii soo saari jiray
Chipset-kana suuqa ayay ka saartay oo waxay u kala baxeen qaar baaba'ay
iyo qaar ciriiri baddan ku nool. Shirkaddii lahayd fikradda Chipset-ka
ee la oran jiray Chips and Technologies waxay si aysan u baabi'in u wareegatay
samaynta chips-yada loogu tala galay monitor-rada computer-rada portable-ka
ah, ugu dambayntiina waxaa 1998-kii gatay Intel.


Intel waxay maanta haysataa 90% suuqa Chipset-ka iyo 100%
suuqa Chipset-ka Motherboard-yada Pentium II iyo wixii ka dambeeyay.


Maxaa keenay in Intel ay soo gasho suuqa Chipset-ka?

Intel marka ay soo saarto processor waxay qaadan jirtay
sanad iyo in ka badan inta aan la soo saarin kumbiyuutar wata processor-ka
cusub. Waayo Shirkadaha sameeya Chipset-yadu waxay u baahnaayeen wakhti
ay ku sameeyaan Chipset qaadan kara processor-ka ay markaa Intel soo saartay.
Taasina waxay keenaysay in ay sii daahdo soo saaridda Motherboard qaadan
kara processor-ka cusub. Intel arrintaas aad ayay u dhibsatay waxayna arrintaas
aad u dareentay markii ay soo saaratay processor-ka 486. Waayo isagoo processor-ku
diyaar ah ayay haddana suurtoobi weyday in si xoog ah loo gado waayo ma
jirin Motherboard diyaar ah oo qaadan karay 486. Taasi waxay Intel ku dhalisay
in marka ay soo saarayso processor cusub uu la socdo Chipset ay Intel soo
saartay oo loogu tala galay processor-kaas iyadoo labadoodaba isku mar
la soo saarayo. Si taasi ay u yarayso wakhtiga ay shirkadaha kale ku qaadanayso
inay soo saaraan Motherboard qaadan kara processor-ka cusub.


Sanadkii 1993-kii markii uu soo baxay processor-kii ugu
horreeyay ee uu noociisu yahay Pentium waxaa la socday Chipset ay Intel
samaysay isku maalin ayayna labadoodaba soo bandhigtay. Ka dibna waxay
qaadatay dhowr bilood si loo soo saaro Motherboard qaadan kara procesor-kaas.
Sidaas ayay Intel ku soo gashay suuqa Chipset-ka iyadoo mar kasta oo ay
Processor cusub soo saartaba soo saaraysay Chipset-kiisa oo la socda.


Maadaama ay taasi aad u yaraysay wakhtiga ay qaadan jirtay
in la soo saaro Motherboard qaadan kara Processor-ka cusub ayaa waxay keentay
in Intel ay xataa samayso Motherboard-ka si ay meesha uga saarto wakhtiga
ay qaadanayso samaynta Motherboard-ka. Maanta Intel waxay isku mar isla
soo saartaa Processor iyo Motherboard dhamaystiran oo horay laga gadi karo
iyadoo aan loo baahnayn in xataa hal maalin la sugo. 90% kumbiyuutarrada
uu processor-koodu yahay Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II iyo Pentium III
waxay aad ugu badan tahay inay wataan Chipset iyo Motherboard ay samaysay
Intel.


Noocyada Chipset-yada Intel

Intel waxay Chipset-yadeeda u samaysay nambarro lagu kala
garto. Shaxanka hoose wuxuu si kooban kuu tusayaa nambarrada Chipset-yada
kala duwan ee ay Intel samaysay iyo nooca Processor-ka mid kasta loogu
tala galay.

Chipset Nr
Processor
Family
420xx
486
430xx
Pentium
440xx
Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Peintium III
450xx
Pentium Pro, Pentium II Xeon, Peintium
III Xeon (P6 Server)


Nambarrada Chipset-yada ee aan halkaan ku soo qaadannay
waa nambar la soo gaabyey oo u taagan nambarka rasmiga ah ee ku dul dhaggan
Chipset-ka. xx waxay u taagan tahay xarfo kala duwan. Tusaale ahaan Chipset-yada
caanka ah ee hadda socda waxaa ka mid ah 440BX oo loogu tala galay Pentium
II. Marka uu nambarkaasi ku dul qoran yahay Chipset-ka wuxuu noqon karaa
82443BX laakiin wuxuu caan ku yahay 440BX. Si aad u garato nooca Chipset-ka
waxaad u fiirsataa shanta nambar ee ugu dambeeya nambarka ku dul qoran
Chipset-ka. Haddii ay shantaas nambar ka bilawdaan 42 Chipset-kaas noociisu
486. Haddii ay ka billawdaan 43 Chipset-kaas noociisu waa Pentium. Haddii
ay ka billawdaan 44 ama 45 nooca Chipset-kaasi waa Pentium Pro, Pentium
II ama Pentium III.


Si aad u sii kala saarto Pentium Pro, Pentium II iyo Pentium
III fiiri shaxanka hoose oo ku tusaya Chipset-yada oo mid kasta loo qoray
magaca uu caanka ku yahay.

Processor
Family
Chipset
Numbers
486420TX, 420EX, 420ZX
Pentium430LX, 430NX, 430FX, 430MX,
430HX, 430VX, 430TX
Pentium II, Peintium
III
440FX, 440LX, 440EX, 440BX
Pentium Pro450KX, 450GX, 440FX


Casharkaanna halkaas ayaan ku joojinaynaa. Casharka xiga
waxaan ku soo qaadanaynaa qeybaha Motherboard-ka inta ka hartay wixii aan
ka gaarno. Ka dibna casharrada xiga ayaan ku dhammaystiri doonnaa wixii
ka sii hara qaybaha motherboard-ka.





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