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 Casharka 10-aad: Noocyada Processor-ka 1

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Is Diiwaangalintaa : 18/11/2010

PostSubject: Casharka 10-aad: Noocyada Processor-ka 1   Thu Feb 10, 2011 3:23 am

Noocyada Processor-ka



Waxaa jira dhowr shirkadood oo ku tartama
samaynta Processor-rada. Shirkadahaas waxaa ugu caansan suuqa
Processor-radana si aad ah u haysta shirkadda
Intel. Shirkadaha kale ee Intel soo raaca waxaa ugu caansan
laba shirkadood oo la kala yiraahdo
AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) iyo Cyrix. Suuqa Processor-rada waxaa haga Intel, AMD iyo
Cyrix-na waxay inta badan soo saaraan Processor-ro u dhigma oo ay
kula tartamayaan hadba kan ay Intel soo saarto.




Guud ahaan Processor-rada waxaa loo kala qaadaa
dhawr jiil (Generations) oo is daba jooga iyadoo la fiirinayo
sidii ay u kala dambeeyeen. Jiilalkaas ayaan mid mid u soo
qaadanaynaa annagoo sheegi doonna waxa uu jiil kastaa uga duwan
yahay jiilkii ka horreeyay iyo noocyada Processor-rada jiilkaas
ka tirsan iyo nooc kasta ciddii samaysay.



  1. First Generation (8086 &
    8088)
    Bishii June
    ee sanadkii 1978-kii ayaa shirkadda Intel waxay soo
    saartay Processor cusub oo 16-bit ah halka ay
    processor-rada wakhtigaas jiray ka ahaayeen 8-bit.
    Processor-kaas waxaa loo bixiyey 8086 wuxuuna lahaa
    Data Bus iyo Internal Register uu ballacoodu ahaa 16-bit
    iyo
    Address
    Bus
    uu balliciisu ahaa 20-bit.
    Nasiib darro kumbiyuutarrada xilligaas jiray waxay
    isticmaali jireen processor-ro 8-bit ah sidaa darteed
    8086 waxaa ku adkaatay in uu suuqa soo galo maadaamaa
    aysan jirin Motherboard-yo isticmaali karay processor
    16-bit ah. Si ay arrintaas wax uga qabato ayaa Intel
    waxay soo saartay processor inta kale kala mid ah 8086
    laakiin uu
    Data Bus-kiisu yahay
    8-bit oo loo bixiyey 8088. Taasi waxay keentay in 8088 uu
    ku shaqeeyo Motherboard-yadii xilligaas jiray. 8088 waa
    processor-kii ay IBM u dooratay
    Personal
    Computer
    -kii ugu horreeyay ee
    ay IBM soo saartay ee loo yaqaannay
    IBM
    PC
    . Processor-kaas wuxuu
    xawaarahiisu ahaa 4.77 Mhz, halkii
    [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-na wuxuu ku qaadan jiray celcelis ahaa 12
    wareeg. Waxaa kale oo 8086 iyo 8088 wehliyey oo la socday
    Math Processor oo ah Processor loogu talgalay inuu si
    dhakhso badan u xalliyo xisaabaadka uu heerkoodu
    sarreeyo. Math Processor-kaas waxaa la oran jiray 8087.
    Kadib waxay Intel soo saartay laba Processor oo ay u kala
    bixisay 80186 iyo 80188 oo ahaa 8086 iyo 8088 oo wax yar
    la sii wanaajiyey waxayse noqdeen kuwo ay Intel ku guul
    darraysatay.

    Dhammaan processor-radaas aan kor ku
    soo sheegnay waxaa la isku yiraahdaa First Generation
    Processors
    (Jiilka 1-aad).

  2. Second Generation (80286)
    Sanadkii 1981-kii waxay Intel soo
    saartay processor loo bixiyey 80286 inta badanna loo soo
    gaabiyo 286, oo dhawr jeer ka dheereeya processor-radii
    jiilka koowaad. 286 wuxuu ku soo baxay xawaare ah 6 Mhz
    wuxuuna halkii
    [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] ku qaadan jiray 4 wareeg iyo bar islamarkaana
    wuxuu lahaa Data Bus iyo Address Bus uu ballacoodu ahaa
    16-bit. Taasi waxay keentay inuu 5 jeer ka dheereeyo
    8088. 286 waxaa wehliyey oo la socday Math Processor la
    oran jiray 80287 oo inta badan loo soo gaabiyo 287 oo
    dhismo ahaan la mid ahaa Math Processor-ka 8087 ee aan
    horay u soo sheegnay. 286 iyo 287 waxaa la isku yiraahdaa
    Second Generation Processors (Jiilka 2-aad).

  3. Third Generation (80386)
    Sanadkii 1985-kii ayaa waxay Intel soo
    saartay Processor aad wax uga beddelay suuqa
    Processor-rada. Processor-kaas oo loo bixiyey 80386 inta
    badanna loo soo gaabiyo 386 wuxuu xagga hawlqabadka
    (Performance) uga fiicnaa dhammaan Processor-radii ka
    horreeyay sida 8086, 8088 iyo 286. 386 wuxuu dhan kasta
    ka ahaa 32-bit wuxuuna halkii
    [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] ku qaadan jiray 4 iyo bar (4.5) wareeg taasoo
    ah halka keliya ee uu kala mid yahay 286. 386 waxaa gaar
    ahaan loogu tala galay Operating System-yada ku shaqeeya
    waxa loo yaqaan Multitasking oo ah in hawlo badan si
    barbarro ah isku mar loo fuliyo iyadoo aan la isku qasin
    oo la kala soocayo. 386 aad ayuu suuqa ugu faafay wuxuuna
    suuqa haystay ilaa 1991-kii.

    386 wuxuu u kala baxaa dhawr nooc oo
    midba loogu tala galay baahi gaar ah. Noocyadaas
    xawaarahoodu wuxuu u dhexeeyay 16 Mhz ilaa 33 Mhz waxaana
    ka mid ah:


    • 386 DX oo ah kii
      ugu horreeyay Processor-rada noocaan ah wuxuu
      lahaa
      Data Bus, Address Bus iyo Internal Register uu ballacoodu
      ahaa 32-bit.

    • 386 SX oo ah nooc
      loogu tala galay in lagu gado qiimo jaban oo la
      mid ah kii lagu gadi jiray 286. Noocani wuxuu
      sida 286 lahaa
      Data Bus uu
      ballaciisu ahaa 16-bit iyo
      Address Bus uu ballaciisu ahaa 24-bit. Wuxuuse
      lahaa Internal Register ay baaxaddiisu ahayd
      32-bit sidaa darteed waxaa isticmaali karay oo ku
      shaqayn karay Operating System-yada iyo
      program-yada loogu tala galay 386 DX. Tusaale
      ahaan Windows 3.1wuxuu 386 SX ugu shaqayn jiray
      si la mid ah 386 DX. Noocani wuxuu si rasmi ah
      suuqa uga saaray wixii 286 ka harsanaa.

    • 386 SL oo loogu
      tala galay kumbiyuutarrada Portable-ka ah ee
      batariga ku shaqeeya. Noocaan waxaa loogu tala
      galay inuu aad u dhaqaaleeyo korontada ama
      awoodda batariga ee uu kumbiyuutarku isticmaalo

    • 387 oo ah Math
      Processor-kii ku lammaansanaa noocyada 386.


Dhammaan noocyada 386 waxaa la isku
yiraahdaa Third Generation Processors (Jiilka
3-aad)

</li>
  • Fourth Generation (80486)
    Bishii April 10-keedii sanadkii
    1989-kii ayaa Intel waxay soo saartay Processor loo
    bixiyey 80486 oo inta badan loo soo gaabiyo 486.
    Processor-kaasi wuxuu noqday tillaabo weyn oo ay Intel u
    qaadday xagga samaynta Processor-ro aad u dheereeya,
    wuxuuna keenay in ay si aad ah u kordhaan soo saaridda
    iyo gadashada program-yada siiba Operating system-yada
    graphics-ka ah ee ay ka mid yihiin Windows iyo OS/2.
    Windows oo keliya waxaa ka gadantay tobanaan milyan oo
    koobi taasna waxaa sabab u ahaa xawaaraha 486 oo suurto
    geliyay in si fudud oo aan sugitaan badan lahayn loo
    isticmaalo Windows iyo program-yada la midka ah. 486
    wuxuu lahaa
    Data Bus, Address Bus iyo Internal Register uu ballaarkoodu ahaa
    32-bit, halkii
    [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-na wuxuu ku qaadan jiray 2 (laba) wareeg.

    Waxyaabaha uu 486 uga fiicnaa 386 iyo
    Processor-radii ka horreeyay waxaa ka mid ah:


    • 486 wuxuu halkii [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] ku
      qaataa laba wareeg oo kaliya halka 386 ay ku
      qaadan jirtay 4.5 wareeg. Taasi waxay keentay in
      486 uu in ka badan laba laab ka dheereeyo 386.
      Tusaale ahaan 386 uu xawarihiisu yahay 40 Mhz
      waxaa ka dheereeya 486 uu xawaarihiisu yahay 20
      Mhz.

    • 486 waxaa loo sameeyay [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
      ku dhex dhisan Processor-ka taasoo keentay in
      akhbaarta hawlaha soo noqnoqda uu ka soo akhristo
      Internal Cache-ka halkaasna uu ku baaqdo
      wakhtigii ku bixi jiray soo akhrinta akhbaartaas

    • Waxaa 486 lagu dhex dhisay Math
      Processor xagga hawl qabadka (Performance) saddex
      jeer kaga fiican 387 (Math Processor-kii garab
      socday 386). Taasi waxay keentay in hawlaha
      xisaabaadka uu 486 ku qabto xawaare aad u
      dheereeya.

    • In badan oo ka mid ah
      Motherboard-yada loogu tala galay 486 waxay
      lahaayeen External Cache (L2) oo ah Memory
      dheeraysa oo ku samaysan Motherboard-ka looguna
      tala galay in lagu kaydiyo akhbaarta hawlaha soo
      noqnoqda wixii ka bata
      [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-ka,
      si marka dambe ee loo baahdo halkaas looga soo
      akhristo.


    486 wuxuu u kala baxaa dhawr nooc oo
    kala dambeeyay xawaare ahaanna kala dheereeya. Noocyadaas
    xawaarahoodu wuxuu u dhexeeyay 16 Mhz ilaa 120 Mhz
    waxaana ka mid ah:



    • 486 DX waa noocii
      ugu horreeyay 486 xawaarihiisuna wuxuu u
      dhexeeyay 25 Mhz ilaa 50 Mhz.

    • 486 SX oo soo
      baxay sanadkii 1991-kii bishii April waa nooc
      loogu tala galay in lagu iibiyo qiimo jaban oo la
      mid ah ama u dhaw qiimihii 386. Noocani wuxuu la
      mid ahaa 486 DX laakiin waxaa laga saaray Math
      Processor-kii ku dhex dhisnaa 486 DX.
      Xawaarihiisu wuxuu u dhexeeyay 16 Mhz ilaa 33
      Mhz. Waxa kale oo jiray 486 SX/2 uu xawaarihiisu
      gaarayay 50 Mhz ilaa 60 Mhz.

    • 486 SL oo ah nooc
      loogu talagalay kumbiyuutarrada yar yar ee
      Portable-ka ah batarigana ku shaqeeya. Noocaan
      waxaa loogu tala galay inuu aad u dhaqaaleeyo
      korontada ama awoodda batariga ee uu
      kumbiyuutarku isticmaalo

    • 486 DX2 oo soo
      baxay sanadkii 1992 bishii March waa nooc loogu
      tala galay inuu ku shaqeeyo xawaare laba jeer ka
      dheereeya xawaaraha
      [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-ka.
      Tusaale ahaan haddii xawaaraha Motherboard-ku uu
      yahay 25 Mhz, 486 DX2 wuxuu xawaarihiisu
      noqonayaa 50 Mhz. Haddii uu xawaaraha
      Motherboard-ku yahay 33 Mhz, 486 DX2 wuxuu
      xawaarihiisu noqonayaa 66 Mhz. 486 DX2
      xawaarihiisu wuxuu u kala baxay saddex nooc oo
      kala ah:

      1. 40 Mhz oo loogu tala galay
        Motherboard-yada uu xawaarahoodu yahay 16
        Mhz ama 20 Mhz.

      2. 50 Mhz oo loogu tala galay
        Motherboard-yada uu xawaarahoodu yahay 25
        Mhz.

      3. 66 Mhz oo loogu tala galay
        Motherboard-yada uu xawaarahoodu yahay 33
        Mhz.


      </li>
    • 486 DX4 oo ah
      nooc loogu tala galay inuu ku shaqeeyo xawaare 2,
      2.5 ilaa saddex jeer ka dheereeya xawaaraha
      [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]-ka.
      Tusaale ahaan haddii xawaaraha Motherboard-ku uu
      yahay 33 Mhz, 486 DX4 wuxuu xawaarihiisu noqon
      karaa 66 Mhz ilaa 100 Mhz. Haddii uu xawaaraha
      Motherboard-ku yahay 40 Mhz, 486 DX4 wuxuu
      xawaarihiisu noqon karaa 80Mhz, 100Mhz ama 120
      Mhz. DX4 waxaa la socday adapter loogu tala galay
      inuu ka yareeyo korontada Motherboard-ka oo ay
      awooddeedu ahayd 5.5 Volt. Adapter-kaasi wuxuu
      korontadaas ka dhigi jiray 3.3 Volt oo ah inta uu
      DX4 xammili karo. Adapter-kaasi waxa kale oo uu
      lahaa waxa loo yaqaan Jumpers oo ah ilko yaryar
      oo maar ah. Jumpers-kaas waxaa loo isticmaali
      jiray in laga doorto hadba xawaaraha la rabo inuu
      Processor-ku ku shaqeeyo.

    • AMD 486 (5x86) oo
      ah nooc ay soo saartay shirkadda
      AMD. Shirkadda AMD waxay soo saartay dhowr
      nooc oo processor-ro ah oo la mid ah 486-kii ay
      Intel soo saartay. Waxay xataa samaysay 486-kii
      ugu dheereeyay oo ay u bixsay Am5x86
      oo uu xawaarihiisu ahaa 133 Mhz. Processor-rada
      kale ee uu noocoodu ahaa 486 ee ay AMD soo
      saartay waxa ka mid ah A80486DX2-80SV8B
      oo uu xawaarihiisu ahaa 80 Mhz, A80486DX4-100SV8B
      oo uu xawaarihiisu ahaa 100 Mhz iyo A80486DX4-120SV8B
      oo uu xawaarihiisu ahaa 120 Mhz.

    • Cyrix 486.
      Shirkadda
      Cyrix waxay
      iyaduna soo saartay dhawr nooc oo processor-ro ah
      oo la mid ahaa 486-kii ay Intel. Cyrix waxay soo
      saartay 486 DX2 iyo DX4 la mid ahaa kuwii ay
      Intel soo saartay xawaarahooduna uu ahaa 50 Mhz,
      66 Mhz, 75 Mhz, 80 Mhz ama 100 Mhz.


    486 wuxuu noqday Processor si aad ah
    suuqa ugu faafay wuxuuna si dhib yar suuqa uga saaray
    386. 486 wuxuu ku caan baxay xagga sii dhisidda oo aad
    uga fududaa Processor-radii ka horreeyay. Taas micneheedu
    wuxuu yahay haddii aad haysato kumbiyuutar uu ku jiro
    Processor ah 486 SX 25 waxaad soo gadan kartaa oo aad ku
    beddeli kartaa 486 DX 66 iwm. ¤(& maanta suuqa wuu
    ka baxay laakiin haddaad fiiriso joornaallada lagu gado
    kumbiyuutarrada gacan labaadka ah waxaad weli ka heli
    kartaa dad iska gadaya kumbiyuutarro wata Processor uu
    noociisu yahay 486.

    </li>



  • Casharkaanna halkaas ayaan ku joojinaynaa.
    Casharka xiga waxaan ku soo qaadan doonnaa Processor-rada jiilka
    5-aad oo loo yaqaan Pentium.







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